This policy book is designed to aid the personnel at Tech Television in understanding
studio operation. It is designed to answer questions on studio operation and procedures.
This book contains various facets of studio policy and operation, and should be consulted
when conditions need or warrant. This policy book is intended to improve communication
within the studio and improve the general quality of the studio as a whole. Any questions
concerning the policy book should be referred to the Director of Broadcasting.
All broadcasts on Tech Television are subject to the policies of this book, even programs that are not listed or named in this book.
Tech Television is governed by its own policies, as explained in this book, as well
as policies of the Speech Theatre, and Journalism Department and Arkansas Tech University.
The laws pertaining to educational access cable by local, State and Federal agencies
also govern Tech Television.
The mission of Tech Television is to provide the Russellville cable-subscribing households of Russellville, Arkansas with noncommercial information and entertainment programming. This public includes the residents of Russellville, Pottsville, and the students of Arkansas Tech University. The public may also include webcast viewers.
In addition, Tech Television endeavors to provide an opportunity for the students
of Arkansas Tech University to participate in all aspects of television production,
gain experience in the field of broadcasting, develop visual skills, learn news writing
skills, and create programming that fosters ideas of creative expression.
Studio Telephone: (479) 964-0810
Fax number: (479) 968-0641
Engineering: (479) 968-0347
Studios and Offices: Crabaugh 116 & 119
Engineering: Crabaugh 106
ATU Broadcast Productions
Russellville, AR 72801
World Wide Web:
All policies are subject to change by the Director of Broadcasting.
Tech Television strives to establish and maintain professional standards appropriate to a college student organization in program production, content, and television operations. Producers are expected to insure that the program content remains within the generally accepted bounds of good taste and fair play. If students are uncertain on how to deal with program content or treatment, discussion with the Director of Broadcasting is expected.
Regarding lewd, defamatory or shock material, Producers are responsible for the content of their programming. They are trusted to have judgment and the maturity to recognize when material is questionable and bring it before the Director of Broadcasting before it airs. Final determination of appropriateness rests with the Director of Broadcasting.
Prior permission to videotape may be necessary in circumstances such as:
Parental permission for minors to appear.
Permission of speakers at sponsored events.
Where an individual’s privacy may be violated.
On private property, certain municipal properties, etc.
Arkansas Tech University Television Productions has equipment for students to use. Most of the equipment can be reserved through the Engineering office in CRA 106.
During semesters, facility hours of operation and hours for equipment reservation
and pick-up are:
Monday through Friday from 7 a.m. to 4 p.m.
Hours are extended for the Evening News and Valley Spotlight.
These hours are subject to change (watch schedule).
Some students can receive after-hours access to the television studio. After-hours access is granted by the Director of Broadcasting for those students who need it.
Tech Television functions as a television studio. Staff and their guests are expected to behave in an orderly, responsible manner at all times.
Always be cautious when entering the studios, you never know when a microphone might be on.
Be careful of what you say even in the outer rooms of the studios, if you speak loud enough what you say could be heard on the air.
Never distract the anchors. The anchors on the air are fully empowered to order anyone to leave the studio floor at any time.
Obscenity and Profanity are NOT permitted in the studios and offices of Tech Television, nor are they allowed in ANY programming. If material or language is questionable at all, do NOT broadcast it over the air and do NOT say it over the air. This includes even the most mild profanity.
Failure to report any violation of ANY station rule, policy or regulation is grounds for dismissal, disciplinary action, or (in some cases) criminal prosecution. The “rat on your friend rule” applies even to witnesses who were not an active party in the violation.
Sexual references are not allowed on Tech Television, actual or implied.
Do not air any questionable matter of any kind.
Any violation of Tech Television policies may result in disciplinary action by the office of Student Affairs as defined in the Arkansas Tech University Student Handbook.
Do not set heavy objects on cables or equipment.
Smoking is not allowed inside any building on the Tech campus, this includes the studio, control room, or master control.
Do not rewire equipment, or attempt to fix equipment. If you feel that a piece of equipment is not working properly, contact the Engineer or the Director of Broadcasting.
The studio may not be used as storage space for any students. Personal items left in the studio will be disposed of every Friday.
Participation is open to all Arkansas Tech University Students without prejudice to
No prior experience is necessary to participate. This is a learning lab, if you want to learn how to do something, ask.
Tech Television newscasts and Valley Spotlight can be counted as credit for Broadcast Practicum. Although Broadcast Practicum is not required to participate.
Volunteers and those taking Broadcast Practicum attend a general meeting at the beginning of the fall and/or spring semesters in CRA 116.
Those interested, but cannot attend the meeting should contact the Director of Broadcasting.
Fill out a questionnaire outlining specific interests and experience.
Monday through Friday 11:00 to 12:50 p.m.
Tuesday 9:00 to 10:40 a.m.
Tuesday 3:00 to 4:40 p.m.
Thursday 9:00 to 10:50 a.m.
Wednesday 3:00 to 4:30 p.m.
On-camera positions are competitive. After the general meeting, Producers will hold try-outs for anchor/interviewer positions. A list of those selected for on-air work will be posted outside the Television studio door (CRA116). Those not selected for on-air positions are still welcome to come to shows to participate (there is always a chance for on-air work during the semester – due to unforeseen circumstances, sickness, class scheduling, failure to show up, or adequately fulfill the duties of their position).
Off-camera positions are also available.
Show up at that show each week at the scheduled time to help out. You may be ask to work a different show that you selected, if your schedule permits, because of staff shortages.
Participation at Tech Television is a privilege. Depending on the severity of an infraction, a student may be removed from all or part of Tech Television duties for any of the following reasons:
Failure to fulfill the duties of a given position.
Violation of Tech Television policy.
Violations of University security and conduct codes.
Unauthorized possession or improper handling of University equipment.
Behavior on Tech Television, or in the field that is disruptive, unbecoming, and/or causes the viewer, Tech Television or Arkansas Tech University embarrassment.
Broadcast practicum is a chance for you to gain practical work experience in the field
You are required to work in some production capacity for the Television Studios in order to fill requirements for this class (you could also do this for radio). You must work for 2 to 2 ½ hours one day per week at one of the University’s broadcast outlets. You must select a television show slot in order to complete the requirements for this course. There are numerous times during the week where these shifts can be met.
If you are enrolled in a broadcast practicum you will be assigned a folder that you must fill out and return to the Director of Broadcasting by the end of the semester.
Dismissal from the station for any reason will result in failure (F) or an incomplete (I) grade at the discretion of the Director of Broadcasting.
Every aspect of the operation of the station and broadcast production will be taught to those in Broadcast Practicum by the staff or by the Director of Broadcasting.
It is very important that all show commitments are met. Do not miss your show.
If you cannot make your show, it is your duty to contact the Producer as soon as you know you will be unable to be at your appointed show. If you can not contact the Producer, call the Chief Engineer so he can notify the Producer. The Chief Engineer is not your personal message delivery service, and therefore should only be contacted if all other methods to contact your Producer have failed. As a very last resort, you may call the Chief Engineer at 968.0347 or by email to tv6 <at> atu.edu. In the subject line put the show you will be missing i.e. Tuesday Noon. Only e-mail from your Tech eID account will be considered valid notification.
You also need to contact the Director of Broadcasting or the Graduate Assistant to arrange a time to make up the missed show.
Keep all doctors excuses and other absence documentation in your Broadcast Practicum folder. Two unexcused absences will result in a letter grade reduction.
Any absence excused or unexcused must be made up.
Do not make appointments (Doctor or otherwise) during a scheduled show time.
Be on time for all shows. It is a good idea for Producers to arrive 5 or 10 minutes before their crew arrives for their show.
Sign in on the clipboard in the newsroom.
Do not be late for your show.
Editorial Conference is for those students producing shows. It gives them the opportunity to make suggestions and help resolve issues that the studio may be facing.
Producers can gain academic credit for editorial conference.
A folder will be handed out at the beginning of the semester outlining editorial conference requirements, if taken as a class. This completed folder will be returned to the Director of Broadcasting, at the end of the semester.
Editorial conference is required for all those who are producing shows on Tech Television. Attendance is mandatory for this meeting.
Editorial Conference will be held in the Tech Television newsroom on Tuesday at 2:30 p.m.
Air Check – An off-air sample of your on air presentation.
It is mandatory that there will be a minimum of two air checks during the course of a semester for each on air person. Other off-camera positions may have air checks as well for show production aspects
The Director of Broadcasting or other designated personnel will pull a random sample of your air shift for critique. Attendance is required for this evaluation.
This person puts together a newscast/show. S/he instructs the other Station personnel on what they should be working on. What stories to write and what to be getting done i.e. white balancing cameras, cueing tapes, gathering video, etc.
This person switches between camera shots in the Control Room.
Operates the teleprompter.
Listens to the Producer and Master Control Operator and tells the anchors what to do, when to speed up or slow down, when to stop and go, etc.
Responsible for setting up and maintaining “good” shots of the anchors/talent.
Assists the Producer in writing news, reads the news on-air, and helps clean up the Studio after a show.
Responsible for checking the microphones and setting levels before a show, cueing up carts. During a show, the Sound Operator controls the anchor/talent microphones, cart music, and sound coming from Master Control.
Responsible for cueing up video tapes before the show, editing weather and other video if necessary, and running the tapes during the show.
Puts in graphics pages, telephone numbers, and credits before programs air, during the broadcast, s/he is responsible for making sure that the pages get on-air.
The Producer on duty, or those who are in the Studio after hours, are responsible for the security of the whole Studio. If you encounter a suspicious situation, threatening phone calls, e-mail or a visitor who will not leave, contact the Tech Police at #222 (that's the pound sign and 2-2-2).
Should no one answer at their direct number, or if you get voice mail, call the non-emergency Russellville Police number at (479) 890-6914.
Should the need arise; call 911 in the event of a real emergency.
During normal Studio hours (7 a.m. to 4 p.m.) you are welcome to bring visitors to the Studio.
Visitors are not allowed to be in the Studio after hours, unless previously approved by the Director of Broadcasting, the Chief Engineer, or the Graduate Assistant.
Occasionally visitors come into the Studio. Sometimes University personnel accompany these people; sometimes they wander in on their own. Either way, we need to be friendly to all that come in to the Studio. They could be future Studio personnel.
If someone unknown to you enters the Studio, smile, be friendly and find out what they want or need. They may be lost, meeting someone, or on tour to see if they want to come to Tech.
In all cases, keep an eye on people that you do not know. If they are removing or abusing property call security.
Do not remove studio property from the studio without permission from the Director of Broadcasting and/or the Chief Engineer.
Removal of studio property without permission may result in student disciplinary action and criminal prosecution.
Abuse of studio property will result in student disciplinary action and criminal prosecution.
If you make a mess, clean it up. You are responsible for the cleanliness of the television studio when you are working on a show, even if you did not make the mess.
Food and drink are not allowed in the Control Room, the Sound Room, the Studio, or Master Control. Food and drink are allowed in the Newsroom and in the front hallway. The exception to this is that water is allowed in the Studio for the anchors and for Valley Spotlight guests. Food and drink containers will be disposed of immediately following their use in the hall wastebaskets.
Tobacco of any kind is not allowed in any Tech building. This includes the studio, master control or the main lobby area of Tech Television. Arkansas law requires that all state buildings be tobacco free. Please dispose of it before entering the building.
In order to maintain a neat appearance of the studio, Friday will be cleanup day, the Graduate Assistant, or Chief Engineer will dispose of any items left in the studios (clothing, CD’s, dishes, etc.). This also includes videotapes left in master control. Be sure to take out what you bring in, it can and will save you much frustration later.
Please practice good physical hygiene in order to make the studio environment more pleasant for all.
Excessive perfume or cologne can be unappealing in a closed studio environment.
TV 6 is a closed in environment, smokers should refrain from smoking 30 minutes prior to coming into the station as to not cause discomfort to their co-workers.
Also be aware of your oral hygiene; if you eat spicy food before coming to the studio, please be conscious of your breath.
Proper attire is to be worn at all times while in the Studio. Tech Television is required to follow OSHA rules for proper clothing. Shirts and shoes are to be worn at all times (Yes, other clothing too!) whether working or visiting the Studio.
Talent should wear appropriate clothing for the program they are on (i.e. T-shirts and other casual apparel would not be appropriate during a news program, etc.).
During news and interview programs clothing should consist of business-professional dress, for men, this means a shirt and tie, and for women, the gender equivalent.
White shirts are not permitted on-camera. Ladies, be very aware of the color contrast of your clothing on your person. Our cameras are aging and they have great difficulty with high contrast colors on talent. Please mute your colors to match your skin/hair coloring as much as possible. Gentlemen, the same applies to your shirts and jackets.
Jewelry is acceptable for talent only in the form of non-dangling ear rings, necklaces, finger rings and bracelets that do not reflect studio lighting. Other than these items, other forms of jewelry are not acceptable for on-camera wear.
Recognizable clothing logos and slogans are not permitted for on-camera talent.
There are many restrictions governing the use of copyright materials on cable access channels. If you are unsure of a rule regarding copyright material, consult the Director of Broadcasting.
News is a major element of Tech Television. News is always to be treated in a serious fashion.
Do not eliminate news simply because you dislike it. Use good news judgment in selecting and airing news stories for a general audience.
Do not air the previous day’s newscast stories again. Update the stories and find new stories.
No editorial comments of any kind are to be inserted in news copy or while reading the news. No editorials or commentaries are allowed on Tech Television.
Tech Television will make every effort to report the news fairly and completely. Tech Television will not use news coverage as an editorial outlet to promote individual or institutional gains.
Tech Television encourages local news reporting, and offers protection to its reporters and their sources. Be aggressive and get the facts on Tech Television first. If in doubt on whether to pursue controversial stories, call the Director of Broadcasting or the Chief Engineer.
Tech Television news stories on juvenile crimes, arrests and convictions. Tech Television will report the offense and the arrest, but not the name of the individual connected with them if under 18 years of age. Efforts will be made so that the context of the report does not readily identify the juvenile.
Some stories will have “sound bites,” or “packages.” A sound bite is a pre-recorded quote that will be on videotape, a package is a complete story that is on videotape. After the anchor reads the first part of the news story, the master control operator will play the sound bite or package. When the sound bite or package is completed, the anchor will finish reading the rest of the story, or move on to the next story – which ever is required.
Package stories, sound bites and voice-overs will only run for two consecutive shows. After that, the story needs to be pulled.
Tech Television recognizes the constitutional right to news coverage and broadcast as well as free speech rights.
Go through all old news and throw out everything that has expired.
State and National need to be thrown out everyday.
Update all stories to keep them up do date.
If a story has been around for two shows, then it is time to revise (revamp) it.
Check for video and make sure the tapes and stories are located and cued up.
Look for stories to add video to. If you can, send someone out with a camera to pick up some sots.
Our main concentration should be Tech and Russellville news. State and National are well covered by other media outlets.
A run through of all equipment (this included but is not limited to: sound, cameras, PSA’s, etc.) must be done 30 minutes before scheduled broadcast time.
All copy should be presented to the anchors 15 minutes before scheduled broadcast time.
The above is a sample of the EZ News program. The Navigator area is where you will find show templates.
The Editor area is where shows are written and edited.
The rundown area is where the show is put together. All stories are located in this area and put in order including breaks and video.
Before anyone starts writing stories or anything else is done, confirm that the previous
show was archived. You do this by clicking on the show you will be working on, File
– Archive/Template – Archive/Erase/Load Template – Yes
This will archive the last show, erase the stories from the screen and Load a blank template in.
This sets up your show.
Start entering stories and/or have your crew start entering stories.
Stories will automatically go to the bottom of the rundown when they are saved.
You can move stories by clicking once on the gray bar to the left of the story in the rundown area. This will highlight the line yellow.
Once this is highlighted, stay in the gray area and hold down the left mouse button.
A shadow of a gray box will appear next to the mouse pointer letting you know that it is ready to be moved.
Without releasing the left mouse button, move the story to the desired location.
A thin red line will appear above your highlighted line to let you know where you are placing the item.
Once all stories are written, or as you approve them, uncheck the dummy time.
Insert breaks by going to
Number the show order by clicking on Edit – Scripts.
There are a few breaks already in the template, if you need to add additional breaks click on Edit – Add Break – Enter Time – OK.
When you are completely done with getting the show ready, print the rundown.
Go to File – Print – Print Rundown As “Large Print Rundown” – ok – ok.
After printing the rundown, print the show scripts.
Select the stories by holding CTRL + left clicking on the gray bard to the left of the story in the rundown.
Once all stories are selected, go to
File – Print – Selected Scripts – Full View – Ok.
Once the rundown and scripts are printed, make sure to check and make sure you have all your story copies and you haven’t left anything out.
Then send someone to make one copy the scripts and enough copies of the rundown for each position.
Once the copies come back, have the talent split up one copy and you keep one copy.
All machines can view the stories in teleprompter mode.
Click on the teleprompter icons in the upper left of the screen.
You can prompt your current story or the whole show.
Only the machine on the studio floor can actually run the teleprompter.
Make sure to highlight the first item of the show you wish to begin teleprompting. Whatever is highlighted is where the prompting will start.
When you are ready to start the show, click the left mouse button.
To stop, double click the left button.
The right mouse button will scroll backwards as long as it is held down. Once released the scripts will run forward again.
The wheel on the mouse will speed up or slow down the script.
The numeric keypad on the keyboard can also speed up or slow down the script. One is the slowest and nine is the fastest. Five is a pretty good speed.
The only way to exit the teleprompter is to press “Q”.
During the school semester, if campus is closed for snow, severe weather or water main breakage, etc. Tech Television will try to be on the air.
This is based on if we have enough students, living on campus that are willing to come in and put together a show.
We have been able to run “snow-day” newscasts for many years. We would like to continue with this trend.
Due to the nature of our Tech Television replays, weather forecasts should be current forecasts only. Do not mention current temperatures or conditions unless you say “at news time.” Take into consideration that we rebroadcast many times throughout the day so what is happening at noon may not be the same weather we are having during the 5 p.m. replay.
Tech Television’s phone and fax number is 964-0810.
All personal phone calls are limited to three (3) minutes. This does not apply to news stories; you can stay on the phone longer if needed to get information for your stories.
“Tech Television, this is _____(your name)_____ speaking.”
Do not accept collect calls for any reason (unless authorized by the Director of Broadcasting or the Chief Engineer).
Do not give out Tech Television staff phone numbers to non-studio personnel. If the caller needs to speak to that person, take a message and call that person yourself.
As we have moved into the usage of more sophisticated equipment, that same equipment has prompted the need for more exacting care.
We now use an on-line equipment reservation system that can be accessed from any web-connected computer, anywhere. Just go to <broadcast.atu.edu> and click on the link for "New Camcorder Checkout System" on the right. If you have not REGISTERED, you need to complete this phase before you can reserve any equipment or use the Premiere editing decks. Once you complete the process, an administrator must approve your request.
One the web site, just select the month and day you want to reserve equipment and click on the time you need the equipment. Your name will show up for a 2-hour period beginning with the time you selected. If you need to change or cancel your reservation the same procedure applies.
On the day you have reserved your camera for, be on time to pick it up. You will need your Tech ID for the equipment being picked up.
Be sure to return all equipment on time. Again you will need your Tech ID to check equipment back in. Failure to return everything will result in you not being able to check out any more equipment until everything is returned.
All equipment will be returned on time. That means by 8:30am for overnight checkouts the next working day.
Returned equipment must be returned to CRA106 during normal office hours.
Equipment cannot be left in Master Control or the Television Studio to be considered returned.
Campus police are not authorized to open CRA106 for students. Be sure to return your equipment to CRA 106 during normal business hours.
Failure to return equipment properly could result in suspension or cancellation of equipment use.
You are limited to editing for a maximum of 2-hours per session or 4-hours per week unless no one has the equipment reserved.
Persons in the editing rooms should have editing experience. If you do not know how to edit, you need for the first few times, to have an experienced editor with you. You can contact a graduate assistant or a fellow student to help you.
Food, drink, smoking and any tobacco products are not allowed in the editing rooms or around equipment. However, food and drink are allowed in the hallway and the newsroom.
Once the reserved time has expired, students should vacate the editor if others are waiting on the machine. If no one has the equipment reserved, editors can continue editing; however, they should leave if someone requests editing time.
Students will not make any adjustments to equipment. This includes going behind faceplates and changing settings or going behind equipment and rewiring it. If you have to unscrew something, then that means you should not be trying to make adjustments to it.
If you receive error messages, or have equipment trouble contact the Chief Engineer immediately.
Please make sure to pick up after yourself before leaving the editing rooms. Put all tapes back on the shelf in their proper order and pick up and throw away all scrap papers and trash before you leave.
Each piece of video must have a slate in front of it. The slate will contain your name, the story name, current date, kill date, and the length of the video. You can create one on the Video Toaster, or you can use the laminated one hanging up in the studio.
All video will be checked before airing on any show. If it does not meet the requirements outlined above or is technically incorrect, it and the story, and its video, will be pulled from the newscast.
After Hours Access has been suspended by Campus Security for a variety of reasons that did not involve Television or Radio students. Therefore, we no longer have access after the building is locked up.
Tech Television can make copies of shows that we broadcast.
The person(s) requesting copies should supply a DVD for the dub. It must have the Monday date for the week that contains the show you want. Also your contact name and phone number.
A reasonable amount of time should be allowed for making the copy.
In the event of a fire in the Crabaugh Building, (if we are on the air) do NOT announce there is a fire over the air.
If we are on the air, immediately go to black and kill the microphones.
If the fire is small and in the Studio, grab a fire extinguisher, and attempt to put it out. If that is unsuccessful, leave at once.
If the fire is elsewhere in the building, exit the building immediately.
Your eID is your passport to most electronic login systems on campus. This ID gets you into the lab computer systems, electronic E-mail, Pharos (Uniprint) printing and the cbt.atu.edu web site. There are a number of other applications where you eID will be used to gain access as the University adds new systems and applications.
1. The eID was created as an Email identification for students in an effort to have a single sign-on environment we dropped the domain extension (mail.atu.edu) and have used this ID extensively through out our PC based systems. Your eID should now be printed on any class schedules that are generated (in the form of your email address). For students the eID looks like STU000000, or for those of you that have been around for a while it will look like A000, B000, C000, or D000. For Arkansas Tech personnel it will be firstname.lastname.
2. Your official email address on campus will be your-eID@atu.edu. All Tech Television Station personnel will receive email to this address. We will not use any other address. You must check your Tech e-mail account frequently. Do not forward this account to some off-campus account. If that account is unreachable for any reason, your mail is LOST forever. If you do not know your eID, you can find it on the Tech web site.
Tech Television staff are welcome to publicize Tech Television.
Posters and flyers may be distributed on campus; as long as students show them to the Director of Broadcasting, Chief Engineer or Graduate Assistant prior to circulation. Posters need to be in good taste, and the staff is expected to use good judgment in creating them. Profanity and obscenity are prohibited. Posters are also expected to follow Arkansas Tech University policy as to location, method and length of posting.
The Journalism banquet will be held at the end of the spring semester at a time that is convenient for the staffs of Tech television, radio, newspaper and yearbook.
Producers need to have something prepared for their crew (i.e. awards, gag awards or certificates).
Customarily, some of the Tech Television crew creates a bloopers tape for the banquet.
How to organize a videotaping team of three students.
Interviewer – Put the interviewee at ease. Keep the person relaxed. Maintain your focus on them in order to ask follow-up questions as needed. Be responsible for the quality of the interviewing process.
Cameraperson (Videographer) – Set up video equipment, responsible for quality of videotape recording. See VIDEO TAPING SKILLS below for additional details.
Grip (Assistant to videographer in setup of equipment and lighting) – Responsible for seeing that the release form is signed, the interview gets the correct identification slate, and that the entire process runs smoothly. Help set up the video equipment. See VIDEO TAPING SKILLS for additional details. Listen to interview and double-check the list of questions to make sure that they were all asked. Also listen to sounds to maintain as quiet a recording environment as possible.
Select a quiet room in the person's home or office where they can be comfortably seated. The interviewer will sit next to the camera across from the person at the same eye level. The interviewee should be looking into the camera while speaking. In other words, the camera should be in the same general area as the interviewer so it appears that the interviewee is talking to the viewer, not someone across the room.
Never have a window or bright light behind the person. Light sources should come from behind the camera or to the side of the interviewee. The videographer should preview the shot to make sure that the lighting is sufficient. Avoid any background noises, e.g. radio/TV turned off, interviewee's, children or pets placed elsewhere, close the windows to eliminate street sounds, etc. Table or floor lamps can add atmosphere as long as they do not overly light the interviewee on one side or highlight the furniture. Fluorescent lighting should not be used as the primary light source if at all possible. Remember to White Balance any cameras that do not do this automatically.
Use either a hand-held microphone or clip a lapel microphone on the interviewee. Unless the interview is to be used for more than a “sound bite”, the interviewer does not need to have an individual microphone as their questions will still be picked up by the interviewee’s microphone. If it becomes necessary to use the microphone built into the camera, it should not be set up more than 5 feet from the interviewee. You should have a clear shot of the interviewee from chest to head with the subject offset slightly to the opposite side of the frame from the direction of the interviewer. This will give the impression that they are talking to someone in your general direction, but just out of view of the camera. Never center the person in the frame unless they are speaking from a platform or podium to a group of people.
While the interviewer and interviewee are getting ready for the interview, start recording for a minute or so. Rewind the tape and through the viewfinder check the framing, lighting and listen to the sound. Make sure all are working properly. When done, notify the interviewer that you are ready when they are ready to begin. Now would be a good time to start recording.
Before the interview, prepare an identification slate with the person's name/the date of interview/name of the interviewer. Print the information boldly so it will be clearly readable. This could be a sheet of WHITE paper and a Sharpee maker. Start the video recording at least one minute before you plan to begin. From this point on, do not move the camera unless the interviewee dramatically changes their position. Hold up the slate in front of the interviewee for about 15 seconds, just before the interview begins. This will also give the videographer a chance to make focus adjustments, white balance and gauge the lighting quality. At the end of the interview, let the camera roll for at least one minute while people move around and you begin to take down your equipment. You never know what will be recorded when you least expect it. Most video tapes have at least 60 minutes of recording time, use it.
The videographer should be very familiar with the operation of the camera prior to the interview. At the start of each interview, check the lighting, framing, and other visual elements. Make any adjustments if needed before the interview gets rolling.
Become adept at checking for proper height, secure placement, and making adjustments.
Most video cameras have automatic focus, but become familiar with its adjustment system.
Do a sound check before you begin the interview. Record the shot you are planning to use and the microphone(s). Rewind and replay this tape to insure you have sound. Also check the framing and lighting as you listen.
If the camera does not have an automatic white balance, be sure to set this before you begin taping. This setting is lost if the power is turned off or the camera shuts down automatically.
You may need to zoom in for a close-up of photos or possessions that the interviewee wishes to share on camera.
The interviewee should be slightly to one side of the center of the shot. You should see the person's body from the chest up to the head. Leave some space above the head in the shot.
Be able to pause the video taping in case of phone calls, unexpected visitors, or other unplanned events during the interview.
Interviewee gives answers that seem too brief – Allow more time for the person to answer each question. If you don't ask the next question, they may fill in the silence with more details.
If the videographer feels the light is too dim, add another light source or move to a different room. Again, never have a light source directly behind or directly above your interviewee.
Suggest the best place for the person to sit. Keep the background as simple and uncluttered as possible. Make sure there is a color contrast between the person and their seat (someone dressed in dark blue clothing on a dark blue sofa will look like a "floating head" on tape). Avoid rocking chairs (the person might bob in and out of your frame and focus).
If your camera has a date/time feature, turn it off before taping the interview.
Refrigerators, air conditioners and aquariums may start making noise in the middle of the interview and are louder than you think. Select a location that will most likely remain quiet.
Persons that wear glasses will have light reflected and can detract from their videotaped image. If the videographer finds excessive glare from glasses at the start of the interview, re-locate your light source or move the camera and tripod slightly. Some interviewee’s may opt to remove their glasses. It would not hurt to ask if all else fails.
If the interviewee is wearing a hat and it is not relevant to the interview, ask that they remove it. If they wish not to, ask them to tilt the brim or bill back so their face is not shadowed. Placing a table lamp on the floor in front of the interviewee may increase the uplight thus giving their face a bit more illumination.
Always make sure the battery for the video camera is charged. Just in case, keep a household extension cord in your camera kit.
Staff members should begin arriving around 11:00 a.m. for the 12:30 newscasts; at 3:00 p.m. for the Wednesday Evening News; and at 3:00 p.m. for Valley Spotlight. You should always be aware of who is supposed to come in for your shows. If a person has committed to work on your show, and has not arrived at a reasonable time, give them a call. A phone list is posted in the newsroom, and you can call the person to see if s/he is on the way. If you can't reach the person, leave a message and let the Director of Broadcasting or the Graduate Assistant know. If the person is an anchor, then you need to either use only one anchor, or find someone else on your show to fill in.
It is your responsibility to call the Producer and let him/her know that you will not be attending the show. You will also need to make up the time missed if you are enrolled in Broadcast Practicum. If you have a legitimate excuse, include it in your Broadcast Practicum folder.
If the problem occurs during daytime hours, notify the Engineer. If you are in the Studio, you can go to the office in CRA 106, if you are elsewhere you can call immediately. If the problem happens at night and you are at the Studio, shut everything down and email the Engineer with the problem. This will not resolve the issue that night, but it will be taken care of the next business morning. Describe the problem in as much detail as possible ("Deck 1 isn’t working" doesn’t help the Engineer nearly as much as "Deck 1 gave me the error number 72”). Do not attempt to repair equipment yourself.
A videotape editing procedure that uses two source tapes on separate VTR's (one supplying the A-roll and the other supplying the B-roll). The availability of two simultaneous picture sources allows for dissolves, wipes and similar transitions through a switcher/controller.
The TV set that shows what has been transmitted.
The opening in the camera lens (the iris) that determines how much light will pass through. Aperture is measured in f-stops.
An editing mode where various segments are added together sequentially in the final program order; the control track of the source tape is transferred along with audio and video information to the edit tape.
The room where all audio signals are controlled and mixed.
The area of a videotape that holds audio information.
An automated feature that allows the camera to focus on what it senses to be your subject.
A highly directional light coming from above and behind a subject, adding highlights, shape and separation from the background.
General lighting on the set behind the talent.
Movable metal shutters or flaps attached to the front of a lighting instrument that are used to limit the area of the projected light.
A process through which selected segments of video are digitized onto a hard drive.
A synchronized video signal that contains no picture information – A blank screen.
A device consisting of a movable base, and adjustable stand, and a long arm for suspending a microphone above and in front of a performer. Also, an arm of a crane that can be used to move a camera up and down or sideways.
A metal clamp with a pivot adjustment for attaching lighting instruments to a lighting grid.
An integrated unit that contains both a camera and a videotape recorder in one housing.
A piece of equipment that contains an imaging device that changes light into electromagnetic energy.
Person who frames the shots for a production.
Audio/Video equipment that records or plays back material on tape that is on a continuous loop in a self-contained unit.
A special electronic effects device with a typewriter-like keyboard that can produce letters and numerals directly on the television screen.
A special effect whereby a special color (usually blue or green) is used as a key to determine what picture information is to be cut out of the picture with the foreground image. It can also be replaced with a background image during the key.
A short piece of video.
An electronically generated pattern of vertical color strips that can be used to standardize and calibrate the color values of all cameras and monitors.
Maintaining a consistent and unobtrusive progression from shot to shot in terms of screen direction, lighting, props, and other production details.
Area where all video signals are mixed, crew members control all program elements from this location.
The portion of the videotape that contains the sync information that keeps all elements in proper timing relationship.
The exclusive right to a production or publication.
The part of a videotape on which time code can be laid down.
An instantaneous change from one video source to another.
Editing where various shots are butted against each other without any dissolves, wipes, or other special effects.
The duplication of an electronic recording
Digital Video Disk, also called Digital Versatile Disk.
The electronic editing console that is used to operate both the source deck and edit deck and to execute edits.
A log of all recorded segments as they will be assembled during the postproduction editing process.
The VCR onto which material is transferred from the source deck(s) during the editing process.
The selection and assembly of shots or clips.
The person who assembles raw footage into a final program.
The use of single camera portable equipment to record new events and other actualities.
A long shot used at the beginning of a program or segment that relates program elements to each other and orients the audience.
A notation that indicates the size of the lens opening. The higher the f-stop number, the smaller the opening. The smaller the f-stop number, the larger the opening.
The gradual bringing in or taking out of an audio or video source.
Person on the floor of the set who passes on instructions from the producer to the on-air talent.
To make an image look sharp and distinct.
One complete television picture, consisting of two fields. In video, there are 30 frames in one second of footage.
A thin translucent, colored material such as gelatin or plastic that can be mounted in front of lighting elements to produce specific color effects.
Pipes near the studio ceiling from which lamps are hung.
Space between the top of a subject’s head and the upper edge of the camera frame.
An earphone and mouthpiece that connects all production personnel to an intercom.
An undesirable concentration of light in one spot.
A closed-circuit audio network connecting all production personnel with headsets.
The process of combining two television fields into one frame by first scanning all the odd lines and then scanning all the even lines of the frames, this process had less flicker than would scanning all the lines from top to bottom in one pass.
An audio setup that allows the talent, wearing a small earpiece, to receive instruction from the director or hear program audio.
The part of the camera lens that allows light to pass through.
Taking between two cameras or editing in such a way that the connecting shots have almost identical views of the same object, and the result is that the object appears to jump slightly for no apparent reason.
The primary source of illumination falling upon a subject that is highly directional and produces a definite modeling or shaping effect with well-defined shadows.
An additional light, usually a spotlight, coming from the side and slightly to the rear of the subject.
A small microphone that can be clipped inside clothing or to a tie or lapel.
A small microphone that can be worn around the neck on a cord.
A permanent arrangement of pipes suspended below the studio ceiling on which lighting instruments can be hung.
A type of editing in which material is put together from the beginning to end.
The primary engineering control center where all video and audio signals are ultimately channeled; program input, camera controls, video recording, and transmitter distribution are often handled from this location.
A pole you can attach a camera to in order to help keep it steady.
Gradually transforming one digital image into another by making a series of slight changes in the first images until it takes on the characteristics of the second image.
Unwanted electronic disturbance or snow in a video signal.
A type of editing in which the program does not need to be edited from beginning to end. The material can be laid down in any order and can be added to, changed or deleted without having to edit all over again.
Extra material at the end or beginning of a shot that is needed to maintain sync in editing.
To turn a camera left to right by rotating the camera mounting or vice versa.
A board with numerous inputs and outputs through which various audio, video or lighting signals can be connected by patch cords to other channels or circuits.
A cable with connectors on both ends that is used to go from one connector on a patch bay to another.
In audio, to reach the highpoint of volume level for a sound sequence, the ideal place to peak is at 0 on the VU meter.
A time after TV program material has been shot during which it is edited.
Time during which the source and edit decks get up to speed.
The period during which preparation and planning are undertaken for a television program.
To look at an edit before it is actually transferred to make sure it is correct.
The legal condition covering copyright that says that when material is old enough it can be used without copyright clearance being obtained.
Light bounced back from the surface of an object.
A raised platform on which talent can sit or stand.
A principle of composition that mentally divides a television monitor into things both horizontally and vertically (looks like a tic-tac-toe board), and places the objects of interest at the points where the lines intersect.
An identifier. Identifies the title of the work, the length, the date, and other pertinent information before a segment of video.
Sound on Tape
A brief portion of a person’s on-camera statement (i.e. a segment from an interview).
A concentrated light that covers a narrow area.
A series of simple drawings that lay out visually the content of a commercial or a program.
A room primarily devoted to video production containing all the items for sets, lighting, cameras microphones, etc. where all acting or performing takes place.
A mechanical device that projects a moving script through mirrors and a computer monitor. It sits directly over the camera lens.
A frame location address system. It can find any section of a videotape or disk by the minute, hour, frame or second.
Visual element at the beginning of a segment of video describing the contents of the video segment.
A three-legged camera mount that holds the camera steady for shots. Sometimes they come on coasters so that the camera can be steadily moved.
Hardware and software that allows a personal computer to convert video into digital form.
Video Tape Recorder
An adjustment process through which light reflected from a white object in given light is used as a reference point.
A video transition whereby one image is gradually pushed off the screen as another picture replaces it.
Last Reviewed: Wednesday, February 3, 2010