A medievalist by training, specializing in religious and social history, his work has examined heresy and anti-clericalism in 14th-century Languedoc, Christian-Hindu encounters in 16th-century Vijayanagara, and Muslim-Christian encounters in the early modern Mediterranean. More recently he has been writing about methods and theory in big history.

Monks, Missionaries and Mentors, ed. with Michael Frassetto and Amy Livingstone. (Leiden: Brill, 2006).

Western Views of Islam in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Perception of Other, ed. with Michael Frassetto (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999).

“Scientific History and the Muslim Worldview” in Our Place In The Cosmos: Big History and Universal Consciousness, a special edition of the International Journal for the Transformation of Consciousness, guest ed. Barry Rodrigue 31:1 (January 2017): 238-245.

“Cosmic Evolution in the Cradle of Civilization” in From Big Bang to Galactic Civilizations: A Big History Anthology, Vol. II, Education and Understanding: Big History around the World, eds. Barry Rodrigue, Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev (Delhi: Primus Books, 2016), pp. 295-317. 

“Europeans Before Europe: Modernity and the Myth of the Other” in Early Modern Constructions of Europe, eds. Florian Kläger and Gerd Bayer (New York and London: Routledge, 2016), pp. 27-40.