Fifteenth Annual Student Research Symposium

 

Thursday, March 20, 2014

Session 2

Pendergraft Library 300 South

Time        Presenter                 Mentor               Title of the Presentation                                  
9:00-9:15 Carerabas Clark Mostafa Hemmati

ELECTRON FLUID DYNAMICAL EQUATIONS FOR CURRENT BEARING BREAKDOWN WAVES

9:15-9:30 Justin Wahlquist Mostafa Hemmati

LOW SPEED CURRENT BEARING RETURN STROKES

9:30-9:45 Megan Fuller Anwar Bhuiyan

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES WITH HEXADENTATE HEMI-CAGE LIGAND

9:45-10:00 Elizabeth M. Ash Stephanie Pepper

CLASS OUT OF CONTROL

10:00-10:15 Larkin McDaniel Franklin D. Hardcastle

IRON-CARBON BOND LENGTH – BOND VALENCE RELATIONSHIP

10:15-10:30 Weiyu Lu Franklin D. Hardcastle

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOND VALENCE AND BOND LENGTH FOR IRON-IRON (Fe-Fe), IRON-SULFUR (Fe-S) AND SULFUR-SULFUR (S-S) CHEMICAL BONDS

10:30-10:45 Adam Gunn Ivan Still

CYTOKINES IN MUSCLE CELLS

10:45-11:00 Hilary Tinerella Jennifer Samson

EFFECTS OF CASE GENDER ON STUDENTS' ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS

11:00-11:15 Kelsey Ledbetter Patricia Buford and Tom Limperis

SUCCESS RATES OF STEM MAJORS

11:15-11:30 Robert Bowman Charles Mebi

Preparation and Characterization of Hydrogenase Models

11:30-11:45 Josh Pennington Ronald Tackett

The crystal structure effect of the synthesis of transition metal oxides through iterations of a recyclable precipitation reaction

11:45-12:00 Zach Freeman and James Clark Genet Duke

STABLE ISOTOPE RATIOS IN ARCHEAN CARBONATITES

12:00-1:00   Lunch Break  
1:00-1:15 Josh Heathcock Hamed Shojaei

INTERACTING DARK ENERGY MODELS

1:15-1:30 Ryan Evans Mostafa Hemmati

SPEED CURRENT RELATION IN LIGHTNING RETURN STROKE

1:30-1:45 Kenneth Smith Tsunemi Yamashita

ANALYSIS OF SODIUM-CHANNEL TOXIN VARAIABLITY IN CENTRUOIDES VITTATUS, THE STRIPED-BARK SCORPION

1:45-2:00 Denise C. Reeves Sandy M. Smith, Elizabeth Gray and Jan Kallberg 

EMERGENCY PRESPONDERS' PERSPECTIVES ON ETHICS OF TRIAGE

2:00-2:15 Rachel Hampton Steve Gann

THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON ATHLETES

2:15-2:30 Joshua Standridge Sandy Smith, Jan Kallberg and Jamie Earls 

PREPAREDNESS OF DISABLED POPULATIONS DURING FIRE EVACUATIONS AT ARKANSAS' FOUR YEAR UNIVERSITIES

2:30-2:45

Claire Hodgson

Julie Mikles-Schluterman

VIOLENCE AND SOCIAL MEDIA: HOW INTERNET MEMES PROMOTE GENDER VIOLENCE

2:45-3:00

Neil Bruner Dawn Ward

EMPTY BOWLS

 3:00-3:15

Emily Kaufman and Sara Hoover Molly Brant and Alvin Williams

 Evaluation of the demands for and utilization of large animal veterinarians in Arkansas

 3:15-3:30

 Karen Grady  Mohamed Ibrahim

THE EFFECTS OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING ON STUDENTS' ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN SCIENCE CLASS

 3:30-3:45

 Hayden Walker  Jay Hudkins

THE ADAMIC MYTH AS APPLIED TO J.R.R TOLKIEN'S "THE LORD OF THE RINGS" TRILOGY

 3:45-4:00

Cole White Rosemary A. Burk

INVERTEBRATE COLONIZATION OF NATIVE MACROPHYTES IN A RECENTLY PLANTED -STORMWATER TREATMENT WETLAND

 4:00-4:15

 Paige Tipton  Lucas D. Maxwell

 THE ACCEPTABILITY OF ONLINE DEGREES AS CREDENTIALS FOR EARNING EMPLOYMENT IN THE AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCE INDUSTRY

 4:15-4:30

Summer Nelson Justin Killingsworth and Lucas D. Maxwell

 AN INVESTIGATION OF COUNSELORS' AND EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATORS' PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS AGRICULTURE-RELATED CAREERS, SCHOOL-BASED AGRICULUTRE PROGRAMS, AND ARKANSAS TECH UNIVERSITY

 4:30-4:45

 Ashton O'Brien and Zachary Brewer  Randy Renfro

 An Economic Analysis of the Feasibility and Profitability of a Multi-Event Arena Located Near the Arkansas Tech University Campus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fifteenth Annual Senior Honors Symposium
 
Thursday, March 20, 2014
Session 1 - Pendergraft Library 300 North

 

Time Presenter Project Project Director
9:00-9:15 Cody Alderman Credit or Debit? An Empirical Look at the Choice of Payment Methods of Certain Age Groups

Dr. Marc Fusaro

Associate Professor of Economics

9:20-9:35 Neil Bruner Empty Bowls 2013

Dr. Dawn Ward

Professor of Art

9:40-9:55 Kelsey White Colorblindness: An Overview

Dr. Cynthia Jacobs

Associate Professor of Biology

10:00-10:15   BREAK

 

10:20-10:35 Caitlin Oswalt Intermittent Fasting: A Look into Various Physiological and Cognitive Effects

Dr. Scott Kirkconnell

Professor of Biology

10:40-10:55 Kenneth Smith Analysis of Sodium-Channel Toxin Variability in

Centruroides vittatus,

the Striped-back Scorpion

Dr. Tsunemi Yamashita

Associate Professor of Biology

11:00-11:15 Shawn McKay Dark Matter: An Original Composition Mr. Philip Parker

Professor of Music

11:20-11:35 Elizabeth Ash Class Out of Control  Dr. Stephanie Pepper

Assistant Professor of Early Childhood Education

11:40-12:00 Jesse Wyatt Owens Grooves

Mr. Philip Parker

Professor of Music

     

 

     

 

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Abstracts
 
2014 Student Research Symposium
Thursday, March 20
 
Pendergraft Library, 300 (South)
 

 

 

9:00-9:15

 ELECTRON FLUID DYNAMICAL EQUATIONS FOR CURRENT BEARING BREAKDOWN WAVES

Carerabas Clark, carerabas@gmail.com
Mostafa Hemmati, mhemmati@atu.edu
Department of Physical Sciences

 The propagation characteristics of breakdown waves, with a significant current behind the wave front, propagating into a non-ionized medium have been studied. A set of electron fluid dynamical equations have been formulated to describe waves propagating in the opposite direction as the direction of the electric field force on electrons (anti-force waves). The successful model, a one-dimensional, steady-state, three-fluid hydro-dynamical representation was utilized to find analytical solutions to electrical breakdown waves with a significant current behind the wave front. The electron gas partial pressure is assumed to be the main element in driving the wave and the waves are considered to be shock fronted. The governing equations include the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, plus the Poisson's equation.

 Anti-force breakdown waves with a large current behind the shock front will possess different structure than those without a current.   For current bearing anti-force waves the equation of conservation of energy and the Poisson's equation has to be modified. For Current bearing anti-force waves, we will present the electron fluid dynamical equations and also the modification of the equation of conservation of energy and the Poisson's equation.

 

 9:15-9:30

 LOW SPEED CURRENT BEARING RETURN STROKES
Justin Wahlquist, jwahlquist@atu.edu
Mostafa Hemmati, mhemmati@atu.edu
Department of Physical Sciences

 

For analytical solution of breakdown waves, we use a one-dimensional, steady-state, three-component (electrons, ions, and neutral particles) fluid model. The wave front is considered to be a shock front and the electron gas partial pressure is considered to provide the driving force for the propagation of the wave. The basic set of equations consists of the equation of conservation of mass flux, equation of conservation of momentum, equation of conservation of energy, plus Poison's equation. The set of equations describing breakdown waves will be referred to as the Electron Fluid Dynamical Equations (EFD). In this study, the emphasis will be on the waves propagating in the opposite direction as the direction of the electric field force on electrons (anti-force waves).

 Inclusion of current behind the shock front will alter the set of equations describing anti-force waves; therefore the set of equations need to be modified. For lower wave speeds, integration of the set of Electron Fluid Dynamical equations through the dynamical transition region of the wave becomes very time consuming. For a relatively lower wave speed and for several current values, we have been able to integrate the set of Electron Fluid Dynamical equations through the dynamical transition region of the wave. We will present the wave profile for electric field, electron velocity, electron temperature and electron number density within the dynamical transition region of the wave.

  

 

9:30-9:45
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES WITH HEXADENTATE HEMI-CAGE LIGAND
Megan Fuller, mfuller3@atu.edu
Anwar Bhuiyan, abhuiyan@atu.edu
Department of Physical Sciences

 Transition metal complexes have been investigated for use in biological electron transfer reactions such as artificial photosynthesis. Bipyridine complexes are the most investigated complexes because of favorable photophysical, photochemical, and redox properties. It was observed that forming complexes with cage ligands can alter inherent photophysical properties of the complexes in an advantageous manner. This talk deals with the synthesis and spectroscopic investigation of custom designed metal complexes containing hemi-cage hexadentate ligand. The ligand was prepared by the reaction of 1,3,5,-tris(bromomethyl)benzene and 5,5'-dimethylbipyridine in presence of diisopropylamine and n-butyllithium in dry THF at -78 oC. The product was recovered by extraction with dichloromethane and purified by column chromatography and recrystallization. Several transition metal complexes were synthesized with the hexadentate hemi-cage ligand. The complexes were characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetric method, and magnetic measurements.

 

 

9:45-10:00
 
CLASS OUT OF CONTROL
 
Elizabeth M. Ash, eash2@atu.edu
Stephanie Pepper, spepper@atu.edu
Department of Curriculum and Instruction

 Classroom management is one of the duties of a teacher. This research paper explores the definition and importance of classroom management as it pertains to public school educators. Classroom management has evolved from a system based on theories of harsh punishment to a system based on affection and scientific knowledge. Modern approaches such as behaviorism and constructivism have also impacted management by providing numerous techniques that teachers can use to solve problems in their classroom. Depending on the severity of the misbehavior, teachers may use minor, moderate or extensive interventions to manage student behavior. Teachers should also be aware of the ethical and legal considerations involved in management, so they do not infringe upon the natural rights of the students.

 

 

 

 10:00-10:15

 
IRON-CARBON BOND LENGTH – BOND VALENCE RELATIONSHIP
Larkin McDaniel, lmcdaniel7@atu.edu
Franklin D. Hardcastle, fhardcastle@atu.edu
Department of Physical Sciences

A bond length – bond valence correlation is a simple way of checking and evaluating molecular structures and is of great interest in chemistry, biology, geology, and material science. Pauling (1947) first determined an "empirical" logarithmic dependence of bond order (s, valence) to bond length R

where Ro is the bond length of unit valence and "b" is an empirical fitting parameter. Since then, "b" values were experimentally found to range from as low as 0.25 and as high as 0.9. A common practice is to consider the "b" parameter a universal constant equal to 0.37 and allow the bond length of unit valence Ro to be the floating parameter.

Based on quantum mechanical arguments, a theoretical expression for the "b" parameter has recently been found by our research group. In the present study, experimentally determined Fe-C bond lengths (literature data) were used to determine and "best-fit" b fitting parameter for Fe-C bonds, and to optimize the orbital exponents of iron and carbon (based on a single exponential, hydrogen-like wavefunction).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10:15-10:30
 
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOND VALENCE AND BOND LENGTH FOR IRON-IRON (Fe-Fe), IRON-SULFUR (Fe-S) AND SULFUR-SULFUR (S-S) CHEMICAL BONDS
 
Weiyu Lu, wlu@atu.edu
Franklin D. Hardcastle, fhardcastle@atu.edu
Department of Physical Sciences

 Pauling (1947) was the first to determine the "empirical" logarithmic dependence of bond order (s, also bond valence) to bond length R

 where Ro is the bond length of unit valence and "b" is an empirical fitting parameter. Since then, "b" values were experimentally found to range from 0.32 to 0.42 for many bonds, and as high as 0.9 between soft and hard ions. A common practice, however, is to consider the "b" parameter as a universal constant equal to 0.37 and allow R­0to be the fitting parameter.

 Recently, a theoretical expression has been derived for the "b" parameter which allows the systematic determination of bond valence – bond length correlations for any chemical bond from orbital exponents of hydrogen-like wavefunctions corresponding to the valence electrons. In the present work, the orbital exponents of iron, and sulfur were determined by fitting the above Pauling equation to experimentally determined bond lengths for compounds containing Fe-Fe, Fe-S, and S-S chemical bonds. The experimental "best-fit" determination of the "b" parameter for each of these systems allowed us to determine the orbital exponents of iron and sulfur.

 

  

10:30-10:45
 
CYTOKINES IN MUSCLE CELLS
 
Adam Gunn, agunn3@atu.edu
Ivan Still, istill@atu.edu
Department of Biological Sciences

 Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and trans-retinoic acid (tRA) are cytokines that initiate the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells in vitro by activating specific cell signaling cascades. Despite previous research conducted on the kinetics of muscle cell differentiation, the precise sequence of signaling cascades responsible for myogenic differentiation are still poorly understood. Prior work in our lab has indicated that constant expression of the transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing 2 (TACC2) short isoform blocks muscle differentiation, potentially by affecting IL-6 and tRA signaling. We now report an investigation to evaluate the effects of adding exogenous IL-6 and tRA to the C2C12 myoblast control and clonal cells constantly expressing the TACC2 isoform. Through morphological analysis, it was observed that tRA enhanced the differentiation program in the C2C12 cell line. In contrast, cells treated with IL-6 did not markedly alter the differentiation process in C2C12. Moreover, cells constantly expressing the TACC2 short isoform that were treated with both of these cytokines failed to begin the differentiation process and died, suggesting that blocks exist in these crucial signaling cascades in this cell line. However, surviving TACC2 cells treated with tRA did display a noticeably different morphology at the end of the experimental timeline when compared to those treated with IL-6. An intermediate target in the cell signaling sequence associated with IL-6 that leads to differentiation is the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Further analysis of this protein by Western blot protein analysis is underway to determine if failure of IL-6 treated TACC2 cells to initiate the differentiation program is dependent on aberrations in this key gene regulators. These data indicate that IL-6 and trans-retinoic acid both play an active role in the muscle cell differentiation process.

 

 

 10:45-11:00
 
EFFECTS OF CASE GENDER ON STUDENTS' ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS
 
Hilary Tinerella, htinerella@atu.edu
Jennifer Samson, jsamson@atu.edu
Department of Behavioral Sciences

A sample of thirty-six undergraduate psychology students were asked to interpret a vignette of an antisocial personality disorder case. The sample was split into three groups: male-case-gender, female-case-gender, and a no-gender-specified control group. The gender and pronouns of the cases were manipulated between groups. Students were asked to identify whether the vignette was antisocial or histrionic, as per the DSM-IV-TR. Additionally, participants were asked to rate the severity of each symptom of antisocial and histrionic personality disorder as it pertained to the case. Independent sample t-tests were run on the symptom severity rankings and a chi-square test was run on diagnostic rates between groups. There was some evidence suggesting that the students ranked certain symptoms as higher in males than females, and others as higher in females than males. There was no evidence to support that gender bias affected diagnostic rates. The study sheds light on certain cultural biases that may be further addressed in this population. It also uncovers problematic limitations in designing a similar study for a student population.

Keywords: antisocial, histrionic, gender bias, personality disorder

 

 

 

11:00-11:15
 
SUCCESS RATES OF STEM MAJORS
Kelsey Ledbetter, kledbetter5@atu.edu
Patricia Buford, pbuford@atu.edu; and Tom Limperis, tlimperis@atu.edu
Departments of Mathematics and Engineering

 Institutions of Higher Education like Arkansas Tech have certain placement qualifications to meet before a student is accepted into the university. This study is over the placement qualifications for students to enter Calculus I. The present requirements for incoming freshmen are 24 on the ACT or a C or better in either College Trigonometry or Pre-Calculus. The research information starts at the incoming freshmen of 2007 and follows their success rates throughout the STEM program chosen. Then using the data collected I will make mathematical models presenting the results. The purpose of this project is to raise the requirements for placement of our future entering freshmen with STEM majors.

 

 

 

11:15-11:30
 
Preparation and Characterization of Hydrogenase Models
Robert Bowman: rbowman5@atu.edu
Charles Mebi: cmebi@atu.edu
Department of Physical sciences

We have prepared and characterized some diiron-carbonyl clusters coupled to aromatic thiolate ligands. These compounds are models for the active site of [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase enzyme. The compounds have been structurally (X-ray crystallography) and spectroscopically (IR, UV-visible and NMR) characterized, and examined as catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of proton to hydrogen. Our catalysts generate hydrogen from acidic water at milder reduction potentials than similar complexes reported in the literature. In this presentation, we will discuss the preparation and catalytic activity of the iron clusters and the importance of hydrogen as a clean alternative to fossil fuels.

 

 

11:30-11:45
 
 
The crystal structure effect of the synthesis of transition metal oxides through iterations of a recyclable precipitation reaction
J.S. Pennington jpennington12@atu.edu
Ronald Tackett, rtackett1@atu.edu
Department of Physical Sciences

Transition metal oxide nanoparticles are created through the use of a recyclable precipitation reaction. Beads of alginate polymer are placed dropwise into a solution of the desired transition metal's chloride salt, the metal ion becomes trapped in the polymer matrix, and at the end of the process the metal ion bonds with oxygen, creating a metal oxide of the transition metal. One "loading" of the sample refers to one iteration of the precipitation reaction. It has been observed in a past experiment that the magnetic properties of another transition metal oxide (γ-Fe2O3) change under repeated loadings. The purpose of this research is to determine if and how the crystal structure of cobalt oxide nanoparticles change under repeated loadings. 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th loadings have been created of cobalt oxide. X-ray diffraction analysis of the samples shows them to be crystalline and predominantly Co3O4; however, in some of the earlier loadings, the presence of another oxidation state (possibly CoO) appears to be present.

 

  

 

11:45-12:00
 
STABLE ISOTOPE RATIOS IN ARCHEAN CARBONATITES
Freeman, Zach W., zfreeman1@atu.edu; Clark, James W.
Duke, Genet Ide, gduke1@atu.edu
 

There has not yet been a comprehensive study of carbonatites with respect to the Great Oxidation Event that occurred on Earth 2.4-2.5 billion years ago, at the boundary between the Archean and Proterozoic eons. Carbonatites are rare igneous rocks that contain ≥50% carbonate minerals (primarily calcite, CaCO3), and have the potential to track geochemical evolution of carbonates in the deep mantle. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratio changes would be expected as carbonate sediments are recycled into the mantle, assuming no mixing of mantle domains. Isotopic analysis of carbonatites of Archean to Proterozoic age can yield data regarding the oxygenation of paleoatmospheres over this span of geologic time. Possible results include a trend of decreasing 13C and 18O ratios in the interval from three billion years ago until recent time, from incorporation of increased biogenic 12Cand 16O in sediments subducted into the deep mantle.

The current research utilizes carbonatite samples obtained from Dr. Keith Bell of Carleton University. These carbonatite samples have been acquired from numerous locations, including the Canadian Shield, Siliinjarvi, Finland, and Iron Mountain, Colorado, U.S., as well as others. Isotopic data yet to be obtained from these specimens will be added to previous data compilations. Laboratory procedures include crushing and isolating calcite grains from the carbonatites. Grains were manually separated and captured in denatured ethanol and stored in standard laboratory vials, in quantities of roughly 30 mg. The isolated grains will be optically analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then will be geochemically analyzed via mass spectrometry. Stable isotope data from these Archean-Proterozoic carbonatite samples will be added to previously obtained data from carbonatites with ages of Proterozoic to the Present.

           

  

 

1:00-1:15
 
INTERACTING DARK ENERGY MODELS
Josh Heathcock, jheathcock@atu.edu
Hamed Shojaei, sshojaei@atu.edu
Department of Physical Sciences

 

Interacting dark energy models were introduced to provide a possible solution to the cosmic coincidence problem. Without any interaction between matter and dark energy, the universe will go toward a dark energy dominated era, in other words there is a final stable equilibrium point for the universe in which matter will have been diluted away. In these models an interaction between dark energy and matter balances the amount of matter and dark energy in the universe avoids a completely dark energy dominated universe. In other words, interactions can change the equilibrium points for the differential equations governing the evolution of the universe. It is also possible to be able to provide a solution for the so-called cosmic coincidence problem using these models. In this work we studied the properties of these models. First we use computer codes to solve the differential equations without any interaction; then we add interactions with different forms and adjust the parameters to be able to find an equilibrium close to what we observe at the present time.

 

 

 

1:15-1:30
 
SPEED CURRENT RELATION IN LIGHTNING RETURN STROKE
Ryan Evans, ryan.evans.1010@gmail.com
Mostafa Hemmati, mhemmati@atu.edu
Department of Physical Sciences

 The propagation characteristics of breakdown waves propagating in the opposite direction as the direction of the electric field force on electrons (anti-force waves – lightning return stroke) have been studied. The electron gas partial pressure is assumed to be the main element in driving the wave and the waves are considered to be shock fronted. A set of electron fluid dynamical equations has been formulated to describe waves with a significant current behind the shock front. The successful model, a one-dimensional, steady-state, three-fluid hydro-dynamical representation was utilized to find analytical solutions for current bearing anti-force waves. The governing equations include the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, plus Poisson's equation.

For anti-force waves with a large current behind the shock front, as the wave speed decreases, the magnitude of current for which solutions to our set of equations become possible decreases as well. For several wave speeds and multiple current values, we have been able to integrate our set of electron fluid dynamical equations through the dynamical transition region of the wave. We will present wave profile for our solutions and describe the speed and current relation in lightning return strokes.

 

  

 

1:30-1:45
 
ANALYSIS OF SODIUM-CHANNEL TOXIN VARAIABLITY IN CENTRUOIDES VITTATUS, THE STRIPED-BARK SCORPION
Kenneth Smith, ksmith65@atu.edu
Tsunemi Yamashita, tyamashita@atu.edu
Department of Biological Sciences

 The goal of this study was to create the sodium-channel toxin protein of Centruroides vittatus in vitro in order to further characterize the structural aspects of variation that exist in the species toxin proteins. In order to create the toxin protein, purified toxin DNA was inserted into a vector via LIC methods and transformed into bacterial cells. Once it was determined that the insert was present in the bacterial cells, it was amplified via PCR, purified, and sent for sequencing. The sequences from stable sodium toxins Na667 and Na668 were returned and showed variability between each other and between the more lethal toxins CsEv3b, a toxin that was sequenced in previous work. Sodium toxin genes Na667 and Na668 were present in the pET-41 vector plasmids, and were transformed into expression bacteria in order to create the toxin protein in vitro. It was determined that the protein was successfully created and weighs approximately 7.7kD. Further studies will include overexpression of the protein toxin and structural analysis of the variability between the toxins.

 

  

1:45-2:00
 
EMERGENCY PRESPONDERS' PERSPECTIVES ON ETHICS OF TRIAGE
Denise C. Reeves dreeves6@atu.edu
Sandy M. Smith ssmith107@atu.edu
Elizabeth Gray egray3@atu.edu
Jan Kallberg jkallberg@atu.edu
Department of Emergency Management

The nature of disasters creates health care emergencies above day-to-day hospital emergencies, which require emergency responders to perform quick and accurate triage decisions under deplorable conditions that impact overwhelming numbers of injured patients. Since ethics are an inherent part of health care decisions, the need exists to understand how emergency responders perceive ethical values of triage during disasters. However, the impact of ethical values on triage decisions and patient outcomes remains an undeveloped area within the field of emergency management, as evidenced by a lack of research regarding emergency responders' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to expand emergency management understanding regarding the implications of ethical values; in particular, to explore how emergency responders' perspectives affect patient care decisions during disaster situations. Emergency responders from law enforcement, fire, and emergency medical services (EMS) will be interviewed regarding ethical values they believe are important to triage decisions and outcomes. The knowledge gleaned from this study will create a foundation for further research through a better understanding of how emergency personnel's perspectives on ethical values influence triage decisions and affect patient outcomes.

Keywords: mass casualty incident; triage; disaster triage; triage during disasters; disaster ethics; ethical issues in EMS; and ethical triage decision perspectives

 

 

 

2:00-2:15
 
THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON ATHLETES
 
Rachel Hampton, rhampton5@atu.edu
Steve Gann, sgann@atu.edu
Department of Physical Science

 Caffeine is the most widely ingested psychoactive drug in the world. It has been known to increase alertness and reaction which is why it is tested by the NCAA and Olympic committee on their participating athletes. The purpose of the research was to find out what benefits athletes receive (on average) from the consumption of caffeine before an athletic activity and at what level would the benefits substantially help the athlete in competition. Caffeine has been found to reduce fatigue in athletes by blocking PDE (phosphodiesterase) which breaks down cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). Without the breakdown of cAMP, the body responds with the "fight or flight" sensation increasing heart rate and thus increasing the amount of oxygen flowing through the body. From the experiments that were researched, caffeine does have an ergogenic effect on athletes regardless of middle distance running or short-term, high-intensity endurance training.

 

 

  

2:15-2:30
 
PREPAREDNESS OF DISABLED POPULATIONS DURING FIRE EVACUATIONS AT ARKANSAS' FOUR YEAR UNIVERSITIES
 
Joshua Standridge jstandridge1@atu.edu
Sandy Smith ssmith107@atu.edu
Jan Kallberg jkallberg@atu.edu
Jamie Earls jearls@atu.edu
Department of Emergency Management

  When a fire evacuation occurs on a college campus, the disabled population are vulnerable to injuries and even loss of life as a result in the lack of preparedness planning among public safety officers who are responsible for the safety and wellbeing of all students including students with disabilities. This proposed study is significant to emergency management because the human dignity of the disabled population must be protected during an emergency fire evacuation that could occur within a classroom or residence hall located on any college campus within the state of Arkansas. The purpose of the proposed study is to investigate the state of preparedness of the disabled population within four-year universities in Arkansas' as perceived by public safety officers. This study, specifically, will examine the state of preparedness of four-year public institutions within Arkansas' from the perspective of public safety officers. The research question for this study is: What is the state of preparedness for fire evacuations of the disabled population within Arkansas' four-year universities? All participants within this research study will be expected to participate in a structured interview with the researcher either through Skype or in person that addresses their institutions state of preparedness during fire evacuations in regards to the disabled population successfully evacuating from a multi-level building such as a classroom or residence hall.

 

 

 

2:30-2:45
 
VIOLENCE AND SOCIAL MEDIA: HOW INTERNET MEMES PROMOTE GENDER VIOLENCE
Claire Hodgson
Julie Mikles-Schluterman, jmiklesschluterman@atu.edu

 This research analyzes the recent explosion of Internet memes, or virally shared images depicting images or videos with funny captions. The purpose of this research is to discover if the normalization of violence towards women is present in massively shared Internet memes, and to analyze college students' attitudes and reactions to this violence. The first phase of the project involves examining the online community's reactions to memes containing violence towards women, and gauging how popular these memes are in comparison to nonviolent alternatives. The second phase of research specifically explores Arkansas Tech college students' reactions and attitudes towards these memes using surveys. We hope to learn more about what populations find this violence to be acceptable, as well as how funny they deem the violent memes to be in comparison to memes that do not capitalize on antisocial behaviors toward women. This research will provide valuable insight into the field of gender studies and how social media is a tool in the degradation of women.

 

 

 

2:45-3:00
 
EMPTY BOWLS
 
Neil Bruner, nbruner@atu.edu
Dawn Ward, dward23@atu.edu
Department of Art
 

For my senior project, I organized and advertised a fundraiser called Empty Bowls. The premise of the event was that ceramic bowls, made by Professor Ty Brunson and the ceramic students here at Tech, were sold in order to raise money to fight hunger in our community. I made a poster, which won an award in Tech's student competitive, which was hung around campus and around the community. I also made a Facebook page promoting the event. At the event, we hung posters with information about hunger in the world and in our community. When someone would buy a bowl, they would receive a thank you card with a statistic about hunger on it.

 The event was very successful. I had planned for the event to last 3 days, but we sold nearly all of the bowls on the first day, raising over $1,600. For the remainder of the days, I had the rest of the bowls placed in the Art office where they would be secure, but still available for purchase.

 When the event was over, Mr. Brunson and I took a picture for the local newspaper, The Courier. This creates publicity that will reach those that did not hear about the event this year. It also shows the success of the event to those who may have been skeptical about coming.

 During the event, I was approached by a professor from the hospitality who wished to be a part of the event in the future. While the event was simple this first year, it has the potential to grow into something much bigger in years to come.

 

  

3:00-3:15
 
Evaluation of the demands for and utilization of large animal veterinarians in Arkansas
 
Emily Kaufman: ekaufman@atu.edu
Sara Hoover: shoover2@atu.edu
Molly Brant: mbrant@atu.edu
Alvin Williams: awilliams37@atu.edu
Agriculture Department

The research was proposed as a method to evaluate placement and utilization of large animal veterinarians in Arkansas. Our research will focus on the costs, availability and utilization of large animal veterinary services. We will survey the licensed veterinarians and the large animal producers within the state to determine whether the market needs are being met. The general conception in Arkansas large animal production agriculture is that there is a shortage of practicing large animal veterinarians to meet the needs of the industry. By comparing the survey results from the producer and the veterinarians we hope to be able to determine the validity and reasons for this conception.

 

 

 

3:15-3:30
 
THE EFFECTS OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING ON STUDENTS' ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN SCIENCE CLASS
Karen Grady karen.grady@lavacaschools.com
Mohamed Ibrahim, mibrahim1@atu.edu
Curriculum and Instruction College of Education
 

Grounded in constructivism teaching methodology (Perkins, 1991; Piaget, 1969; Vygotsky, 1978), the present study investigated the effect of the project-based learning strategy on male and female students' learning outcomes and intrinsic motivation in a science class. Participants were 121 students (70 female, 51 male), 65 in seventh-grade, 56 in eighth-grade and age between 12-14 years old. Investigators assessed students' learning outcomes and intrinsic motivation after two different teaching strategies: project-based learning (PBL) and lecture-based learning (LBL). A within-subjects design employed to compare students' test scores after teaching one unit for two weeks using PBL and another unit for two weeks using LBL method. The results of the present study indicated that students in PBL condition perform academically better than in LBL condition. This effect was demonstrated by the statistically significant differences in students' learning outcome, with the highest scores achieved by students in the PBL condition (M = 80.72, SD = 14.67) compared to students' test scores in the LBL condition (M = 72.50, SD = 16.44), t (119) = 6.349, p < .001, α = .001. The investigators further examined the effect of the PBL method on male and female test scores. The results of ANOVA analysis indicate that there was no significant difference of the PBL method on male students' learning outcome compared to female students. Finally, the results of students' perception survey indicate that students preferred and were more motivated during learning in the PBL condition compared to LBL method. The findings of the present study suggest that the use of PBL method has the potential to effectively improve students' learning outcome and motivation in middle school science class compared to PBL method. The results also suggest that the PBL method improve students' learning outcomes equally and effectively and regardless of their gender in science class.

 

 

 

 3:30-3:45
 
THE ADAMIC MYTH AS APPLIED TO J.R.R TOLKIEN'S "THE LORD OF THE RINGS" TRILOGY
 
Hayden Walker, hwalker5@atu.edu
Jay Hudkins, jhudkins@atu.edu
Department of Communication and Journalism

 This paper examines J.R.R Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy of novels through the lens of the Adamic Myth. Specifically, the essay compares two characters from Tolkien's books, Isildur and Aragorn, to the first and second Biblical Adams as characterized in the Adamic Myth. The essay argues that Tolkien's omission of the death of the second Adam significantly alters the Adamic Myth and the essay explores how that alteration affects modern-day Christianity and its attendant death/resurrection conceptions.

 

  

 

3:45-4:00
 
INVERTEBRATE COLONIZATION OF NATIVE MACROPHYTES IN A RECENTLY PLANTED
STORMWATER TREATMENT WETLAND
Cole White, cwhite13@atu.edu
Rosemary A. Burk, rburk1@atu.edu
Department of Biological Sciences

 Aquatic plants have been successfully used to improve water quality in stormwater treatment wetlands and to provide habitat for aquatic invertebrates and fishes. A stormwater treatment wetland was planted with native macrophytes and invertebrate colonization dynamics were studied in a planted species, Justicia americana (American water willow) and the native colonizer, Ludwigia repens. Three replicate samples of each species were collected monthly during the summer 2013 by sampling above ground biomass. Total taxa richness for the Justicia americana was 16 and 15 for Ludwigia repens in July. In August, Justicia americana and Ludwigia repens each had a total taxa richness of 14. Invertebrate communities appeared to recovery quickly from a spate 2 weeks prior to sampling in August as evidenced by similar number of taxa found in both months, while decreased numbers of taxa would be expected after such flood events. Increasing trophic complexity with more predatory taxa abundance and diversity was observed in August samples of both species and is evidence of increasing functional and trophic diversity in aquatic invertebrate communities associated with macrophytes. Invertebrate predators sampled in August that did not appear in July included midges (Order Diptera: Subfamily Tanypodinae and Family Chaoboridae) and water mites (Subclass Acari: Subfamily Hydracarina).

 

  

 

4:00-4:15
 
THE ACCEPTABILITY OF ONLINE DEGREES AS CREDENTIALS FOR EARNING EMPLOYMENT IN THE AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCE INDUSTRY
Paige Tipton, ptipton@atu.edu
Lucas D. Maxwell, lmaxwell2@atu.edu
Department of Agriculture

 With increased demand for higher education, students are looking for the most convenient and cost effective ways to attain a degree. Increased access to higher education through online technology has given people that may not live close to universities, military personnel, and working parents, a way to attain higher education at their convenience. Online degrees are not only popular for an undergraduate degree but are gaining popularity with graduate and doctoral degree programs as well. Online degrees have struggled with issues of credibility and quality. While online degrees have gained popularity due to their "ease of access" and cost efficiency, there is still some debate on whether or not an online degree is as credible as a degree achieved in a traditional setting. The acceptability of online degrees has also come into question. The agriculture industry is growing at a faster rate than job positions can be filled. A 15% increase in agriculture and forestry production is expected between 2010-2015. With other fields previously studied, there has been an interest on where the agriculture field stands on the acceptability of online degrees. The purpose of this study was to determine how human resource professionals for companies in the agriculture food and natural resource industry view online degrees. The study seeks to determine if these individuals place more values on degree's earned in a traditional face to face setting verses those earned partially or completely online. A census of the participants of the 2013 North American Ag and Food Human Resources Roundtable served as the population for this study. A previously constructed instrument was modified, with consent from the authors, and questionnaires were then distributed to recipients via email. This study is still in progress, results and conclusions are expected to be compiled and completed by May 2014.

 

 

 

4:15-4:30
 
AN INVESTIGATION OF COUNSELORS' AND EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATORS' PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS AGRICULTURE-RELATED CAREERS, SCHOOL-BASED AGRICULUTRE PROGRAMS, AND ARKANSAS TECH UNIVERSITY
Summer Nelson, snelson5@atu.edu
Justin Killingsworth, jkillingsworth2@atu.edu
Lucas D. Maxwell, lmaxwell2@atu.edu
Department of Agriculture

 In the field of agriculture, there continues to be a shortage of qualified workers even though there are numerous job openings. Many openings will be filled by degree-holders from other fields of study. A decline in student enrollment in colleges of agriculture may have contributed to this problem. Therefore, it is imperative that postsecondary agriculture programs improve recruitment. Postsecondary institutions have traditionally capitalized on recruitment efforts in high schools. However, in the current climate of competition for recruitable, traditional students and tightening postsecondary budgets, a need exists for identifying recruitment potential in previously unrecruited territories. Principals, superintendents, and secondary-level counselors have access to under-recruited student groups and may have an influence on their career choices. The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of education professionals in Arkansas regarding agriculture-related careers, school-based agriculture programs, and Arkansas Tech University. This knowledge will hopefully provide an opportunity to improve recruiting practices for postsecondary agriculture programs. To collect data, an electronic questionnaire was created by the researchers after a review of literature. Questionnaires were then distributed to recipients via email. This study is still in progress, results and conclusions are expected to be compiled and completed by May 2014.

 

  

 

4:30-4:45
 
An Economic Analysis of the Feasibility and Profitability of a Multi-Event Arena Located Near the Arkansas Tech University Campus
Ashton O'Brien, aobrien1@atu.edu,
Zachary Brewer, zbrewer@atu.edu,
Randy Renfro, rrenfro@atu.edu
Agriculture Department

his research is an attempt to discover the interest in a multi-event arena located in the Russellville area and if said arena could possibly be a profitable enterprise. One student was used to gather operational cost numbers from two existing facilities with similar characteristics to purposed arena, and one student conducted surveys in which to gauge the interest in the immediate area. Possible receipts were tabulated using data of what current participants at other arenas are paying. Benefits were calculated on the number of participants attending the event and the amount of time they would be in the Russellville area. The students did not address the exact location of an arena and the difficulty in acquiring a favorable location. Likewise, the students did not address the financing needed in order to build and maintain the facility, or the methods for obtaining the needed funds. It was felt by the mentor that the inclusion of the previously mentioned subjects would expand the scope of the study to a level much larger than he wished for the students to commit.

 

 

 

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